Research Behind Every Ingredient

*Click on the number at the end of the sentence to open up the full clinical study

Sodium Bicarbonate

  1. Patients with moderate dehydration were successfully treated with sodium bicarbonate solutions to replenish lost sodium and effectively hydrate the patients [1]
  2. Moderate exercise results in reduced salt and water absorption - indicating that it is important to replenish salt daily to avoid dehydration [2]

Sodium Citrate

  1. Sodium citrate supplementation improved 5 km run time in 17 well trained college athletes [3]
  2. Supplementation with sodium citrate improved performance time of swimmers [4]

Potassium Bicarbonate

  1. The average daily loss of potassium through sweat and urine in a person is 4500 mg/day - indicating that potassium is easily lost from the body, and should be replenished daily [5]
  2. Potassium supplementation mediates perceived exertion during moderately intense exercise, and improves VO2 MAX - an indicator of how well the body transports oxygen through the blood and into the muscles [6]

Magnesium Oxide

  1. Marginal magnesium deficiency impairs exercise performance and amplifies the negative consequences of strenuous exercise. Magnesium supplementation or increased dietary intake of magnesium will have beneficial effects on exercise performance in magnesium-deficient individuals [7]
  2. Magnesium supplementation improved performance parameters in both aerobic and anaerobic exercises in studies done on athletes [8]
  3. Oral magnesium supplementation significantly reduces resting and post exercise blood pressure and heart rate [9]


  1. An amino acid-electrolyte beverage increased cellular rehydration relative to carbohydrate-electrolyte and flavored water beverages [10]
  2. The amino acid Taurine, by virtue of its antioxidant activity, has been shown to play a crucial role as a cytoprotectant, and inhibit adverse effects of oxidative stress [11]
  3. A study performed on 10 triathletes showed decreased oxidative stress when supplementing with Tuarine [12]
[1] Islam MR, e. (1984). Oral rehydration therapy: efficacy of sodium citrate equals to sodium bicarbonate for correction of acidosis in diarrhoea. - PubMed - NCBI. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Oct. 2018].
[2] Barclay, G. and Turnberg, L. (2018). Effect of moderate exercise on salt and water transport in the human jejunum. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Oct. 2018].
[3] Oöpik V, Saaremets I, Medijainen L, et al Effects of sodium citrate ingestion before exercise on endurance performance in well trained college runners British Journal of Sports Medicine 2003;37:485-489.
[4] Russell, C., Papadopoulos, E., Mezil, Y., Wells, G. D., Plyley, M. J., Greenway, M., & Klentrou, P. (2014). Acute versus chronic supplementation of sodium citrate on 200 m performance in adolescent swimmers. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition11, 26. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-11-26
[5] Malhotra MS, Sridharan K, Venkataswamy Y. 1976. Potassium losses in sweat under heat stress. Aviat Space Environ Med 47:503–504.
[6] Goss F, et al. Effect of potassium phosphate supplementation on perceptual and physiological responses to maximal graded exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2001;11:53–62. [PubMed]
[7] Nielsen, F. H. & Lukaski, H. C. Update on the relationship between magnesium and exercise. 19, 180–189 (2006). [PubMed]
[8] Zhang, Y., Xun, P., Wang, R., Mao, L., & He, K. (2017). Can Magnesium Enhance Exercise Performance?. Nutrients9(9), 946. doi:10.3390/nu9090946
[9] Kass, L. S., Skinner, P., & Poeira, F. (2013). A pilot study on the effects of magnesium supplementation with high and low habitual dietary magnesium intake on resting and recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise and systolic blood pressure. Journal of sports science & medicine12(1), 144-50.
[10] Tai, C. Y., Joy, J. M., Falcone, P. H., Carson, L. R., Mosman, M. M., Straight, J. L., Oury, S. L., Mendez, C., Loveridge, N. J., Kim, M. P., … Moon, J. R. (2014). An amino acid-electrolyte beverage may increase cellular rehydration relative to carbohydrate-electrolyte and flavored water beverages. Nutrition journal13, 47. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-47
[11] Ripps, H., & Shen, W. (2012). Review: taurine: a "very essential" amino acid. Molecular vision18, 2673-86.
[12] De Carvalho, F. G., Galan, B., Santos, P. C., Pritchett, K., Pfrimer, K., Ferriolli, E., Papoti, M., Marchini, J. S., … de Freitas, E. C. (2017). Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise. Frontiers in physiology8, 710. doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00710